Surface Chemistry of Carbon Capture

Surface Chemistry of Carbon Capture PDF Author: K. S. Birdi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351116452
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 231

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Book Description
Surface Chemistry of Carbon Capture: Climate Change Aspects provides comprehensive and up-to-date literature on carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and delineates the surface chemistry of this process. Mankind is dependent on energy from gas, oil, coal, atomic energy, and various other sources. In all fossil fuel combustion processes, carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced (ca. 25 Gt/year). In the past few decades, we have observed a constant increase in CO2 content in the air (currently ca. 400 ppm [0.04%]). This book discusses the technology related to carbon (i.e., CO2) capture and sequestration (CCS) from fossil fuel energy plants, which is considered an important means of CO2 control. It also covers the adsorption/absorption processes of CO2 on solids and similar procedures to help address growing climate change concerns.

Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Materials

Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Materials PDF Author: Qiang Wang
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1788011090
Category : Carbon dioxide mitigation
Languages : en
Pages : 308

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Book Description
Inorganic solid adsorbents/sorbents are attractive materials for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gases after fossil fuel combustion. Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Materialsintroduces the key inorganic materials used as adsorbents/sorbents with specific emphasis on their design, synthesis, characterization, performance, and mechanism. Dedicated chapters cover carbon-based adsorbents, zeolite- and silica-based adsorbents, metal-organic framework (MOF)-based adsorbents, and alkali-metal-carbonate-based adsorbents. The final chapter discusses the practical application aspects of these adsorbents used in carbon dioxide capture from flue gases. Edited and written by world-renowned scientists in each class of the specific material, this book will provide a comprehensive introduction for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers from both academic and industrial fields wishing to learn about the topic. arn about the topic.arn about the topic.arn about the topic.

Advances in Carbon Capture

Advances in Carbon Capture PDF Author: Mohammad Reza Rahimpour
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0128227583
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 572

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Book Description
Advances in Carbon Capture reviews major implementations of CO2 capture, including absorption, adsorption, permeation and biological techniques. For each approach, key benefits and drawbacks of separation methods and technologies, perspectives on CO2 reuse and conversion, and pathways for future CO2 capture research are explored in depth. The work presents a comprehensive comparison of capture technologies. In addition, the alternatives for CO2 separation from various feeds are investigated based on process economics, flexibility, industrial aspects, purification level and environmental viewpoints. Explores key CO2 separation and compare technologies in terms of provable advantages and limitations Analyzes all critical CO2 capture methods in tandem with related technologies Introduces a panorama of various applications of CO2 capture

Materials for Carbon Capture

Materials for Carbon Capture PDF Author: De-en Jiang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119091179
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 376

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Book Description
Covers a wide range of advanced materials and technologies for CO2 capture As a frontier research area, carbon capture has been a major driving force behind many materials technologies. This book highlights the current state-of-the-art in materials for carbon capture, providing a comprehensive understanding of separations ranging from solid sorbents to liquid sorbents and membranes. Filled with diverse and unconventional topics throughout, it seeks to inspire students, as well as experts, to go beyond the novel materials highlighted and develop new materials with enhanced separations properties. Edited by leading authorities in the field, Materials for Carbon Capture offers in-depth chapters covering: CO2 Capture and Separation of Metal-Organic Frameworks; Porous Carbon Materials: Designed Synthesis and CO2 Capture; Porous Aromatic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Capture; and Virtual Screening of Materials for Carbon Capture. Other chapters look at Ultrathin Membranes for Gas Separation; Polymeric Membranes; Carbon Membranes for CO2 Separation; and Composite Materials for Carbon Captures. The book finishes with sections on Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers for Carbon Capture and Ionic Liquids for Chemisorption of CO2 and Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes. A comprehensive overview and survey of the present status of materials and technologies for carbon capture Covers materials synthesis, gas separations, membrane fabrication, and CO2 removal to highlight recent progress in the materials and chemistry aspects of carbon capture Allows the reader to better understand the challenges and opportunities in carbon capture Edited by leading experts working on materials and membranes for carbon separation and capture Materials for Carbon Capture is an excellent book for advanced students of chemistry, materials science, chemical and energy engineering, and early career scientists who are interested in carbon capture. It will also be of great benefit to researchers in academia, national labs, research institutes, and industry working in the field of gas separations and carbon capture.

Carbon Capture

Carbon Capture PDF Author: Jennifer Wilcox
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461422159
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 324

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Book Description
This book approaches the energy science sub-field carbon capture with an interdisciplinary discussion based upon fundamental chemical concepts ranging from thermodynamics, combustion, kinetics, mass transfer, material properties, and the relationship between the chemistry and process of carbon capture technologies. Energy science itself is a broad field that spans many disciplines -- policy, mathematics, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, geology, materials science and mineralogy -- and the author has selected the material, as well as end-of-chapter problems and policy discussions, that provide the necessary tools to interested students.

Porous Materials for Carbon Dioxide Capture

Porous Materials for Carbon Dioxide Capture PDF Author: An-Hui Lu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 3642546463
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 245

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Book Description
This multi-authored book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in porous CO2 capture materials, including ionic liquid–derived carbonaceous adsorbents, porous carbons, metal-organic frameworks, porous aromatic frameworks, micro porous organic polymers. It also reviews the sorption techniques such as cyclic uptake and desorption reactions and membrane separations. In each category, the design and fabrication, the comprehensive characterization, the evaluation of CO2 sorption/separation and the sorption/degradation mechanism are highlighted. In addition, the advantages and remaining challenges as well as future perspectives for each porous material are covered. This book is aimed at scientists and graduate students in such fields as separation, carbon, polymer, chemistry, material science and technology, who will use and appreciate this information source in their research. Other specialists may consult specific chapters to find the latest, authoritative reviews. Dr. An-Hui Lu is a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, China. Dr. Sheng Dai is a Corporate Fellow and Group Leader in the Chemical Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Tennessee, USA.

Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery

Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery PDF Author: Iyad Karamé
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 178923574X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 266

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Book Description
Fossil fuels still need to meet the growing demand of global economic development, yet they are often considered as one of the main sources of the CO2 release in the atmosphere. CO2, which is the primary greenhouse gas (GHG), is periodically exchanged among the land surface, ocean, and atmosphere where various creatures absorb and produce it daily. However, the balanced processes of producing and consuming the CO2 by nature are unfortunately faced by the anthropogenic release of CO2. Decreasing the emissions of these greenhouse gases is becoming more urgent. Therefore, carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) of CO2, its utilization in oil recovery, as well as its conversion into fuels and chemicals emerge as active options and potential strategies to mitigate CO2 emissions and climate change, energy crises, and challenges in the storage of energy.

Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Hydrocarbons Vol. 1 Catalysis

Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Hydrocarbons Vol. 1 Catalysis PDF Author: Inamuddin
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030286223
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 211

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Book Description
This book presents the catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into various hydrocarbons and other products using photochemical, electrochemical and thermo-chemical processes. Products include formate, formic acid, alcohols, lower and higher hydrocarbons, gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and syngas.

Surface Chemistry Essentials

Surface Chemistry Essentials PDF Author: K. S. Birdi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439871787
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 285

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Book Description
Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry with up-to-date references and data from real-world examples. This book enables readers to better understand many natural phenomena and industrial processes. Mathematical treatment is mainly given as references to make the material accessible to individuals with a broader range of scientific backgrounds. The book begins by introducing basic considerations with respect to liquid and solid surfaces and describes forces in curved versus flat liquid surfaces. Chapters cover properties of surface active substances, such as surfactants and soaps; lipid films and Langmuir-Blodgett films; and adsorption and desorption on solid surfaces. The author discusses processes involved in liquid–solid interface phenomena, which are utilized in washing, coatings, lubrication, and more, and colloid chemistry systems and related industrial applications such as wastewater treatment. The author also addresses bubbles, films, and foams and the principles of oil–water emulsion science, used in detergents, paints, and skin creams. The final chapter considers more complex applications, for example, food emulsions, scanning probe miscroscopy, the cement industry, and gas and oil recovery.

Computational Catalysis for Carbon Capture and Utilization

Computational Catalysis for Carbon Capture and Utilization PDF Author: Panithita Rochana
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
Living in a world of high energy demand, energy independence is important for surviving the future economic uncertainties. Oil, natural gas and coal have been the world's primary energy resource for a number of decades. However, coal remains the world's largest abundant fossil fuel and coal reserves are more distributed around the world compared to oil or natural gas. Generally, coal is mainly used as a direct fuel source for power generation utilities. Burning fossil fuels such as coal results in the release of heat (from which energy is extracted) and inevitably emits gaseous products, water and carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace contaminants (i.e., particulate matter, SOx, and NOx). According to the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the current average global atmospheric CO2 concentration as of September 2012 is close to 390 ppm. This level has risen sharply from preindustrial levels of 280 ppm a century ago as energy demands have increased globally. To stabilize the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere to reach a level that would avoid dangerous impacts to the environment, a portfolio of strategies including carbon capture and storage and/or utilization (CCS and/or U) and alternative energy sources with no carbon emissions - solar, wind, geothermal, hydro and nuclear - is required. However, it will likely take decades to supply the rising global energy demand solely with non-carbonized energy resources. This is because technologies used to exploit non-carbonized energy sources efficiently and economically are still either in development or in an early stage of commercialization. Consequently, fossil fuels will remain the primary source to supply the global energy needs for the foreseeable future. Carbon capture combined with storage and/or utilization serves as the only approach to reduce the amount of CO2 emission in the near term. The current study consists of two projects that target carbon capture and utilization from an atomistic view by aid of computational chemistry. Throughout recent decades, computational chemistry has become a promising tool to serve as a theoretical framework for providing a fundamental description of surface chemical reactions. Considerable information regarding surface chemical processes including equilibrium structures, adsorption energies, reaction paths and activation energies are required to aid in the understanding of the activity or selectivity for a particular reaction on a particular surface. Calculations are based on a quantum-mechanical description of the interactions between electrons and between electrons and atomic nuclei. The advantages of theoretical studies are not limited to a better understanding of the surface science processes, but also are a crucial component to material design for future technologies. The first project is to develop a catalytic nitrogen (N2)-selective membrane technology with potential applications of indirect CO2 capture and ammonia synthesis. The N2-selective membrane technology benefits from the driving force of N2 in flue gas (~73 wt.%) streams for indirect CO2 capture as it provides atomic nitrogen on the permeate side of the membrane during separation. Metallic membranes made from Earth-abundant Group V metals, i.e., vanadium (V) and its alloy with ruthenium (Ru) are considered for catalytic selective N2 separation. Similar to a traditional palladium (Pd)-based H2-selective membrane for hydrogen purification, N2 molecules preferentially adsorb on the catalytic membrane and dissociate to two nitrogen atoms. The atomic nitrogen diffuses through the crystal lattice by hopping through the interstitial crystal sites of the bulk metal, ultimately leading to atomic nitrogen on the permeate side of the membrane. This study has been focused on the nitrogen interactions only at the membrane surface and throughout several subsurface layers. The adsorption energies of N2 as well as atomic N on the V surface (V(110)) and Ru-alloyed V surface (Ru-doped V(110)), are calculated and compared with the traditional catalyst for ammonia synthesis, i.e., iron (Fe). The nitrogen dissociation pathway and its corresponding activation barrier are also determined. Additionally, the diffusion of atomic N from the V(110) surface to its subsurface layers is investigated to determine the rate-limiting step of nitrogen transportation across membrane surface. It is found that the N2 molecule and atomic N bind on the V(110) surface very strong compared to adsorption on the Fe surfaces. Though the activation energy (ca. 0.4 eV) for nitrogen dissociation on the V(110) surface is greater than that of the Fe surfaces, it is comparable to that of the Ru surfaces. Atomic N slightly prefers to stay on the V(110) surface rather than in the subsurface layers. Coupling this with relatively high activation barrier for subsurface diffusion (ca. 1.4 eV), it is likely that the subsurface diffusion of nitrogen is the rate-limiting step of nitrogen transportation across membrane surface. Alloying Ru with V reduces the adsorption energy of atomic N on the Ru-doped V(110) surface and in the subsurface layers. Therefore, it is expected to facilitate the nitrogen transport across the membrane surface. The second project is associated with conversion of the synthesis gas, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) obtained from the fossil fuel combustion to higher valuable products such as gasoline or other chemicals via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. This study is primarily focused on the CO adsorption on the surface of the iron-cobalt alloy - FeCo(100). This alloy of FeCo is chosen because this material has experimentally shown high activity towards FT synthesis and has demonstrated promise for suppressing carbide formation, thereby slowing the catalyst degradation rate. The CO adsorption on the FeCo(100) surface has been investigated and compared to the previous theoretical study of CO adsorption on the FeCo(110) surface. The analysis of the local density of states (LDOS) and charge density profile of the CO-adsorbed systems have been applied to examine the CO adsorption mechanism on the FeCo(100) surface, which is the first step in the FT synthesis process. The range of computed adsorption energies from this study falls between the CO adsorption energies on pure Fe and Co surfaces. Moreover, CO prefers to adsorb on the top site of the Co surface of FeCo alloys, whereas CO has stronger adsorption on pure Fe than on the pure Co surface. This change in metal preference for adsorption (i.e., from Fe in a pure system to Co in the FeCo alloy surface in the current investigation) is due to the shift in the d-band center of the alloyed material. This implies that alloying Fe with Co changes the electronic structure properties of the pure metal and ultimately affects the CO adsorption energy. This work represents an example of how the electronic structure properties of a metal might be tuned for optimal CO-surface reactivity via alloying.