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Rethinking the Ethics of Clinical Research

Rethinking the Ethics of Clinical Research PDF Author: Alan Wertheimer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199813285
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
Clinical research requires that some people be used and possibly harmed for the benefit of others. What justifies such use of people? This book provides an in-depth philosophical analysis of several crucial issues raised by that question. Much writing on the ethics of research with human subjects assumes that participation in research is a distinctive activity that requires distinctive moral principles. In most contexts, we allow people to choose the activities in which they engage. By contrast, people are permitted to participate in research only after Institutional Review Boards determine that it is appropriate for them to do so. Although we assume that consent to participate in research must be preceded by an elaborate disclosure of information, we make no such assumption in many other areas of life. Although it is thought to be morally problematic to provide financial inducements to prospective subjects, we make no such assumptions when we hire people as loggers, fishermen, and fire fighters. Although we readily accept the "off-shoring" of manufacturing, many regard the off-shoring of medical research with great skepticism. This book seeks to widen the lens through which we consider such issues. When we do so, we will find that many standard principles of research ethics are difficult to defend. The book first argues that because respect for "autonomy" has been a central tenet of research ethics, many have failed to recognize that the structure of the regulation of research is deeply paternalistic and have therefore failed to justify such paternalism. The book then rejects "the autonomous authorization" model that characterizes most writing in bioethics and argues for a "fair transaction" model. Although many worry that the use of financial payment to recruit research subjects is coercive or constitutes an undue inducement, the book argues that most of those worries are misplaced. Shifting its attention to research in developing societies, the book considers the claim that international researchers exploit research abroad often exploits its subjects. Finally, the book considers the claim that because researchers benefit from their use of research subjects, they acquire special obligations to them or their communities.

Rethinking the Ethics of Clinical Research

Rethinking the Ethics of Clinical Research PDF Author: Alan Wertheimer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199813285
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
Clinical research requires that some people be used and possibly harmed for the benefit of others. What justifies such use of people? This book provides an in-depth philosophical analysis of several crucial issues raised by that question. Much writing on the ethics of research with human subjects assumes that participation in research is a distinctive activity that requires distinctive moral principles. In most contexts, we allow people to choose the activities in which they engage. By contrast, people are permitted to participate in research only after Institutional Review Boards determine that it is appropriate for them to do so. Although we assume that consent to participate in research must be preceded by an elaborate disclosure of information, we make no such assumption in many other areas of life. Although it is thought to be morally problematic to provide financial inducements to prospective subjects, we make no such assumptions when we hire people as loggers, fishermen, and fire fighters. Although we readily accept the "off-shoring" of manufacturing, many regard the off-shoring of medical research with great skepticism. This book seeks to widen the lens through which we consider such issues. When we do so, we will find that many standard principles of research ethics are difficult to defend. The book first argues that because respect for "autonomy" has been a central tenet of research ethics, many have failed to recognize that the structure of the regulation of research is deeply paternalistic and have therefore failed to justify such paternalism. The book then rejects "the autonomous authorization" model that characterizes most writing in bioethics and argues for a "fair transaction" model. Although many worry that the use of financial payment to recruit research subjects is coercive or constitutes an undue inducement, the book argues that most of those worries are misplaced. Shifting its attention to research in developing societies, the book considers the claim that international researchers exploit research abroad often exploits its subjects. Finally, the book considers the claim that because researchers benefit from their use of research subjects, they acquire special obligations to them or their communities.

Exploitation

Exploitation PDF Author: Monique Deveaux
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1786602059
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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Book Description
First collection to apply a pluralistic and multi-disciplinary approach to understanding exploitation and its potential remedies.

An Introduction to Clinical Research for Health and Social Care Professionals

An Introduction to Clinical Research for Health and Social Care Professionals PDF Author: Ario Santini
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 166559750X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 326

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Book Description
With the increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice, there is a need for all health and social care professionals to understand the principles of general and clinical research. In the United Kingdom and several other countries, this had led to a proliferation of advanced programs, including for those seeking doctorate degrees. In this book, the editors introduce readers to the principles and practice of clinical research. Eighteen chapters and three appendices provide guidance on the different stages of a research project, from inception to the dissemination of results. Topics include: • steps to engage in practice-based research; • ethical questions surrounding research; • sources of funding; • collecting and collating data. Contributing authors emphasize the need to critically appraise literature before carrying out a research project. They also explain the stages of a research project and share insights on where to go for more information. The book includes an index, a glossary, and charts and figures to promote learning. Discussion questions reinforce critical material.

Research within the Disciplines

Research within the Disciplines PDF Author: Peggy Keeran
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442232765
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 369

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Book Description
Research within the Disciplines is designed to help reference librarians – and students studying to become librarians – gain that deeper understanding of disciplinary differences that allows them to comfortably solve information needs rather than merely responding to questions, and practical knowledge about how to work with researchers in a library setting. The book has three chapters that cover the disciplines at the broadest level – humanities, social sciences, and sciences, plus supplemental chapters that focus on associated disciplines (research in history, business, and engineering, research using government sources) and across disciplines (interdisciplinary and critical information literacy). For the second edition of Research within the Disciplines, several chapters have been added that together give a broader and deeper overview of research across all subject areas: research practices of creative and performing artists and of clinical scientists, research in international documents, research strategies for foreign language materials, and visual literacy across the disciplines. Major shifts in technology have been accounted for that have changed how we do research and have expanded the range of resources available to researchers in all disciplines. All of the chapters have been rewritten or heavily revised; this is much more a new book than a new edition.

For the Common Good

For the Common Good PDF Author: Alex John London
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019753483X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 481

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Book Description
Alex John London defends a conception of the common good that grounds a moral imperative with two requirements. The first is to promote research that enables key social institutions to effectively, efficiently and equitably safeguard the basic interests of individuals. The second is to ensure that research is organized as a voluntary scheme of social cooperation that respects its various contributors' moral claim to be treated as free and equal. Connecting research to the goals of a just social order grounds a framework for assessing and managing research risk that reconciles these requirements and justifies key oversight practices in non-paternalistic terms. The result is a new understanding of research ethics that resolves coordination problems that threaten these goals and provides credible assurance that the requirements of this imperative are being met.--

The Ethics of Research with Human Subjects

The Ethics of Research with Human Subjects PDF Author: David B. Resnik
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319687565
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 316

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Book Description
This book provides a framework for approaching ethical and policy dilemmas in research with human subjects from the perspective of trust. It explains how trust is important not only between investigators and subjects but also between and among other stakeholders involved in the research enterprise, including research staff, sponsors, institutions, communities, oversight committees, government agencies, and the general public. The book argues that trust should be viewed as a distinct ethical principle for research with human subjects that complements other principles, such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. The book applies the principle of trust to numerous issues, including informed consent, confidentiality, risk minimization, risks and benefits, protection of vulnerable subjects, experimental design, research integrity, and research oversight.This work also includes discussions of the history of research involving human subjects, moral theories and principles, contemporary cases, and proposed regulatory reforms. The book is useful for undergraduate and graduate students studying ethical policy issues related to research with human subjects, as well as for scientists and scholars who are interested in thinking about this topic from the perspective of trust.

Paternalism beyond Borders

Paternalism beyond Borders PDF Author: Michael N. Barnett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316828492
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 353

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Book Description
Nearly all of those who want to make the world a better place are engaged in paternalism. This book asks how power is intertwined with practices of global compassion. It argues that the concept of paternalism illuminates how care and control are involved in the everyday practices of humanitarianism, human rights, development and other projects designed to improve the lives of others. The authors explore whether and how the paternalism of the nineteenth century differs from the paternalism of today, and offer a provocative look at the power in global ethics, raising the question of whether, when, and how paternalism can be justified.

Ethical Considerations When Preparing a Clinical Research Protocol

Ethical Considerations When Preparing a Clinical Research Protocol PDF Author: Evan DeRenzo
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123869358
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 368

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Book Description
Ethical Considerations When Preparing a Clinical Research Protocol, Second Edition, provides a foundation for improving skills in the understanding of ethical requirements in the design and conduct of clinical research. It includes practical information on ethical principles in clinical research, how to design appropriate research studies, how to consent and assent documents, how to get protocols approved, special populations, confidentiality issues, and the reporting of adverse events. The book's valuable appendix includes a listing of web resources about research ethics, along with a glossary, making it an invaluable resource for scientists collaborating in clinical trials, physician investigators, clinical research fellows, and more. Walks investigators and trainees through the identification of the ethical aspects of each section of a clinical research protocol Includes case histories that illustrate key points Contains information on conducting clinical research within the pharmaceutical industry Includes internet resources and worldwide web addresses for important research ethics documents and regulations Contains a chapter on Study Design and Methodology that is purposely expanded to explicitly address biostatistical considerations

Clinical Ethics Handbook for Nurses

Clinical Ethics Handbook for Nurses PDF Author: Pamela Grace
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9402421556
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 260

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Book Description
This handbook provides tools for nurse educators, ethics educators, practicing nurses and allied health professionals for developing confidence and skill in ethical decision making in interdisciplinary settings such as acute and chronic care hospitals and clinics. It is useful for all healthcare personnel who face ethical issues in the course of their work and who work with nurses to resolve these issues. While the content is based on a US context, the concerns of nurses internationally are discussed and emphasized. Nurses working in acute and chronic care settings face many obstacles to providing good care and are often the first line of defense related to patient safety and meeting the needs of patients and their families. Some of the obstacles to optimal patient care are institutional, some sociocultural, and others the result of inadequate communication. Evidence points to the idea that while nurses do have the knowledge and skills to address practice problems of various sorts, they may not be confident in their skills of ethical decision making and advocacy actions. This is a resource to develop moral agency on behalf of individuals and to address broader barriers to good care raised at the local, community, or social levels.

The Routledge Handbook to Rethinking Ethics in International Relations

The Routledge Handbook to Rethinking Ethics in International Relations PDF Author: Birgit Schippers
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317041763
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 414

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Book Description
Discussing cutting-edge debates in the field of international ethics, this key volume builds on existing work in the normative study of international relations. It responds to a substantial appetite for scholarship that challenges established approaches and examines new perspectives on international ethics, and that appraises the ethical implications of problems occupying students and scholars of international relations in the twenty-first century. The contributions, written by a team of international scholars, provide authoritative surveys and interventions into the field of international ethics. Focusing on new and emerging ethical challenges to international relations, and approaching existing challenges through the lens of new theoretical and methodological frameworks, the book is structured around five themes: • New directions in international ethics • Ethical actors and practices in international relations • The ethics of climate change, globalization, and health • Technology and ethics in international relations • The ethics of global security Interdisciplinary in its scope, this book will be an important resource for scholars and students in the fields of politics and international relations, philosophy, law and sociology, and a useful reference for anyone who wishes to acquire ‘ethical competence’ in the area of international relations.