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Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) Attack Warning System

Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) Attack Warning System PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Legislation and National Security Subcommittee
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Air defenses
Languages : en
Pages : 440

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Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) Attack Warning System

Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) Attack Warning System PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Legislation and National Security Subcommittee
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Air defenses
Languages : en
Pages : 440

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Book Description


Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) attack warning system

Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) attack warning system PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Legislation and National Security Subcommittee
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Air defenses
Languages : en
Pages : 440

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Book Description


NORAD's Missile Warning System

NORAD's Missile Warning System PDF Author: United States. General Accounting Office
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Air defenses
Languages : en
Pages : 22

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GAO was requested to review recent missile warning system failures at the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD). The NORAD command post is in the underground Cheyenne Mountain complex in Colorado. Missile warning information gathered from the Worldwide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS) is processed on the 427M system computers. The 427M computer system is presently in an upgrade program. GAO evaluated: (1) the extent, if any, of the relationship of computer acquisition policies, directives, or procedures implementing the legal requirements of the Brooks Act to the 427M system problems; (2) actions taken to correct missile warning system failures; and (3) what remains to be done and if that effort is hindered in any way by computer acquisition policies, directives, or procedures. GAO could not document any relationship of the acquisition policies, directives, or procedures to 427M system problems. In response to recent GAO recommendations, NORAD has instituted significant changes in its acquisition management of computer resources and has planned further improvements. One further action is still needed: NORAD should be released from any requirements to use WWMCCS equipment and software, because it is not adequate to satisfy the NORAD requirements. NORAD has taken actions to correct the problems that led to recent missile warning failures. It has constructed a software development and testing facility that allows the development and testing of all software at an offsite facility to prevent errors which occurred when test data were inadvertently injected into the operational missile warning system. Also, changes in warning transmission procedures, line check message formats, and outgoing message error checking should prevent false alerts such as those which occurred in June 1980. In examining the documentation on the 427M system interim upgrades and planned follow-on replacement systems, GAO could not identify any potential hinderance to their acquisition from the current applicable legislation, policies, or implementing regulations. NORAD is proceeding in a logical, reasoned manner toward 427M system interim upgrades for the mid-1980's and the follow-on replacement in the late 1980's.

Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) Attack Warning System

Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) Attack Warning System PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Legislation and National Security Subcommittee
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Air defenses
Languages : en
Pages : 440

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Book Description


The Limits of Safety

The Limits of Safety PDF Author: Scott Douglas Sagan
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691213062
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages :

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Environmental tragedies such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez remind us that catastrophic accidents are always possible in a world full of hazardous technologies. Yet, the apparently excellent safety record with nuclear weapons has led scholars, policy-makers, and the public alike to believe that nuclear arsenals can serve as a secure deterrent for the foreseeable future. In this provocative book, Scott Sagan challenges such optimism. Sagan's research into formerly classified archives penetrates the veil of safety that has surrounded U.S. nuclear weapons and reveals a hidden history of frightening "close calls" to disaster.

Atomic Audit

Atomic Audit PDF Author: Stephen I. Schwartz
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815722946
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 700

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Since 1945, the United States has manufactured and deployed more than 70,000 nuclear weapons to deter and if necessary fight a nuclear war. Some observers believe the absence of a third world war confirms that these weapons were a prudent and cost-effective response to the uncertainty and fear surrounding the Soviet Union's military and political ambitions during the cold war. As early as 1950, nuclear weapons were considered relatively inexpensive— providing "a bigger bang for a buck"—and were thoroughly integrated into U.S. forces on that basis. Yet this assumption was never validated. Indeed, for more than fifty years scant attention has been paid to the enormous costs of this effort—more than $5 trillion thus far—and its short and long-term consequences for the nation. Based on four years of extensive research, Atomic Audit is the first book to document the comprehensive costs of U.S. nuclear weapons, assembling for the first time anywhere the actual and estimated expenditures for the program since its creation in 1940. The authors provide a unique perspective on U.S. nuclear policy and nuclear weapons, tracking their development from the Manhattan Project of World War II to the present day and assessing each aspect of the program, including research, development, testing, and production; deployment; command, control, communications, and intelligence; and defensive measures. They also examine the costs of dismantling nuclear weapons, the management and disposal of large quantities of toxic and radioactive wastes left over from their production, compensation for persons harmed by nuclear weapons activities, nuclear secrecy, and the economic implications of nuclear deterrence. Utilizing archival and newly declassified government documents and data, this richly documented book demonstrates how a variety of factors—the open-ended nature of nuclear deterrence, faulty assumptions about the cost-effectiveness of nuclear weapons, regular misrepresentation of and overreaction to the Soviet threat, the desire to maintain nuclear superiority, bureaucratic and often arbitrary decisions, pork barrel politics, and excessive secrecy—all drove the acquisition of an arsenal far larger than what many contemporary civilian and military leaders deemed necessary. Atomic Audit concludes with recommendations for strengthening atomic accountability and fostering greater public understanding of nuclear weapons programs and policies.

Interim Report of the Activities of the House Committee on Government Operations

Interim Report of the Activities of the House Committee on Government Operations PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Attack Warning: Lack of System Architecture Contributes to Major Development Problems

Attack Warning: Lack of System Architecture Contributes to Major Development Problems PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Computer architecture
Languages : en
Pages : 21

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For a decade the Air Force has been modernizing computer subsystems in Cheyenne Mountain, the command center for the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) system. This effort-designated the Cheyenne Mountain Upgrade (CMU) program-is intended to modernize systems that provide critical strategic surveillance and attack warning and assessment information to U.S. and Canadian leaders. Because of your continuing interest in this program, you requested that we review Air Force activities to complete this effort-specifically, the impact of not using an overall system architecture to guide CMU design and development. Appendix I provides a detailed description of our objectives, scope, and methodology.

Moving Targets

Moving Targets PDF Author: Scott Douglas Sagan
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691221758
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages :

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In what Stanley Hoffmann, writing in The New York Review of Books, has called a "fine analysis and critique of American targeting policies," Sagan looks more at the operational side of nuclear strategy than previous analysts have done, seeking to bridge the gap between theory and practice.

Activities of the House Committee on Government Operations

Activities of the House Committee on Government Operations PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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